Eating mindlessly may be contributing to the ever-expanding waistlines across the globe. Research into mindful eating has largely focused on weight control and helping people to develop a better relationship with food. How can you eat more mindfully?
A scientific review found that people who were given larger food packages, bigger restaurant portions, and larger-sized plates and bowls, ate an average of 30% more food on that occasion, compared to people who were given smaller-sizes.However, over 70% of people believed they had eaten the same amount as they normally ate, and 94% firmly believed that they were not influenced by the package, portion or plate size. The findings from this review suggest that external factors can cause people to mindlessly.
Likewise, a recent meta-analysis found that eating while being distracted, such as watching television or playing a computer game, leads to greater acute food intake. It may be that the distraction takes away the perception of food attributes such as flavour, texture and appearance, which delays the onset of the feeling of “having enough” that triggers a person to stop eating. Distracted eating may interfere with memory of recent food intake, and can also lead to increases in subsequent snacking.By contrast, redirecting attention to the food while eating decreased the amount of subsequent snacking in lean young women.This suggests that paying attention to what we eat, i.e. mindful eating, may be useful in reducing inadvertent overconsumption.
Mindfulness is deliberately paying attention to the present moment without judgment. It reflects an ancient Buddhist meditation practice. Mindful eating simply means being attentively aware while eating. This entails: focusing on the sensory attributes of the food such as the taste, smell and texture, acknowledging subjective responses to eating a food such as likes and dislikes, and paying attention to internal cues of hunger and satiety.Mindful eating encourages the body to follow its own inner wisdom to choose foods that are both satisfying, enjoyable and nourishing.
Mindless to mindful
There is an increasing number of studies examining the impact of mindfulness on a range of health and lifestyle issues including deleterious eating behaviours (e.g. irregular eating patterns, emotional eating) and weight control. A review of 21 studies of mindfulness-based interventions to change obesity-related eating behaviours found that 86% of the studies reported improvements in eating behaviour, dietary intake and body weight.Another review, focusing on weight loss, found that six out of eight short-term intervention studies documented significant weight loss among people eating mindfully.There is also promising work that suggests that mindful eating can help prevent inadvertent or mindless overeating by people with a healthy weight.Mindful eating has also been effective in self-management of diabetes.However, longer term studies are needed to see if the effects are lasting. It is proposed that mindful eating increases awareness of hunger and satiety cues, interrupting habitual and stress-related eating patterns and improving control of food intake.Further work is needed to understand the psychological, behavioural, and biological mechanisms underpinning the process, and the most consistently effective interventions.